Indole-3-carbinol the enzyme found in the Brassica species of vegetables (Broccoli, Kale, Brussel Sprouts, Cauliflower, Collard Greens, Arugula) helps protect against breast cancer in three ways; It deactivates estrogen, so there is less estrogen in our bodies to stimulate the breast cell estrogen receptor sites that cause cancer cells to grow, it induces liver detoxification which in turn helps destroy chemicals that are potentially carcinogenic, and it increases apoptosis(the name given for programmed cell death). Our cells have a built-in mechanism for destroying themselves under the right conditions so that new healthy cells can take their place.
Tip # 1: Too much Brassica can interfere with iodine utilization in the thyroid gland. If you are hypothyroid, steaming or cooking the brassica vegetables can partially deactivate the chemical culprit.
Tip # 2: If you eat raw kale chips etc. you can take a little extra iodine with it to make up for the utilization problem.